This document defines a format for tabular data.

AuthorJason Dusek
Last Updated6 May 2014
Created6 May 2014


This document defines a line-oriented, tabular data format.

The format is intended to be easy to implement, space efficient, streamable, amenable to processing with line-oriented tools and broadly interoperable. The “text” output mode common to many relational databases is line-oriented, tabular, streamable, and easily described; it is here presented as a candidate for standardization.

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  • 1.0-beta: initial revision

Table of Contents


A tabular data file consists of zero or more records consisting of fields.

Records are separated by ASCII newlines (0x0a). Fields within a record are separated with ASCII tab (0x09). It is permitted but discouraged to separate records with carriage-return-newline (0x0d and 0x0a). (A literal carriage return in any other position is non-conforming.)

A zero-length file is a valid linear TSV file, containing no records. Empty lines are ignored in linear TSV files.

Linear TSV provides for escape sequences, instead of quoting, so that implementations can naively split on the byte values of the separators. To include newlines, tabs, carriage returns and backslashes in field data, the following escape sequences must be used:

  • \n for newline,

  • \t for tab,

  • \r for carriage return,

  • \\ for backslash.

Records must contain at least one field. All fields must be present in every record. To indicate missing data for a field, the character sequence \N (bytes 0x5c and 0x4e) is used. Note that the N is capitalized. This character sequence is exactly that used by SQL databases to indicate SQL NULL in their tab-separated output mode.

If a single backslash is encountered at the end of a field, it is an error. If a backslash precedes another character but does not form one of the escape sequences above, it is a “superfluous backslash” and is removed from the field on read. Such a “superfluous backslash” must never be written by a conforming implementation.

While CSV files commonly have a header line, giving names to each of the columns, in this format no provision is made for such a header.


In advocating a shift to a line-oriented, tab-separated serialization format, we are endorsing an existing format: the default serialization format of both Postgres and MySQL. We propose to standardize a subset of the format common to both database systems.

A truly line-oriented format for tabular data, where newline, carriage return and the separator are always represented by escape sequences, offers many practical advantages, among them:

  • The parsers are simple and fast.

  • First pass filtering and sorting for line-oriented formats is easy to implement in high-level languages, like Python and Java.

  • Analysis and transformation of line-oriented data with command line tools is simple, dependable and often surprisingly efficient.

  • By requiring escape sequences when newlines and tabs are in field text, the format allows parsers to naively and efficiently split data on raw byte values: 0x09 for fields and 0x0a for records.

CSV is almost right and it’s worth talking about the disadvantages of CSV that motivate the author to promote another tabular data format:

  • In some locales, , is the decimal separator; whereas the ASCII tab never collides with the decimal separator. More generally, the tab is not a centuries old glyph that one encounters in natural language.

  • CSV is not truly line-oriented – newlines are quoted, not escaped. A single record can span multiple physical lines. In consequence, line-oriented processing almost works until it doesn’t, and then simple tricks – sorting on the first column to optimize insertion order or batching records in to groups of a few thousand to get better insert performance – require relatively complicated code to get right.

  • CSV’s quoting style requires one to mingle field data parsing and record splitting. Taking every third record still requires one to parse the prior two, since a newline inside quotes is not a record separator.

  • CSV is ambiguous in many small areas – the presence or absence of a header line, the choice of quote character (single or double?) and even the choice of separator character are all axes of variability.

A Note About Headers

Header lines are excluded to simplify line-oriented processing. The naive filtering, sorting and concatenation of TSV files with line-oriented tools could easily mix headers with data.

The amount of information provided by a header line is rarely sufficient for interoperable parsing. The Data Package spec provides a mechanism for bundling column names, types and format information with data.